What happens at a jury trial

At the start of a trial, the court clerk will ask the defendant if they're ready for trial. If they are ready, the clerk randomly selects jury panel numbers. When a panel number is called, the juror goes to the jury box.

Choosing the jury

It's important you know your jury panel number. The court uses numbers not names when selecting jurors. At the start of the trial, the court clerk randomly selects jury panel numbers. 

If they call your panel number, reply “yes” and go to the jury box in the courtroom. Court security staff will guide you. This is the area where jurors sit during the trial.

When selected, you must either be 'sworn' or 'affirmed' before you become a juror. The court clerk will ask which method you want to use, and will invite you to repeat after them the words of the oath and affirmation, which are similar and mean the same.

The oath or affirmation means that you publicly confirm that you will consider the issues faithfully, according to the evidence.

Once sworn onto a jury, you must always sit in the same place in the jury box.

Challenge to a juror

Prosecution or defence lawyers could 'challenge' you if they think you should not serve as a juror. They must give a good reason. If the judge accepts their reason, you won't be allowed to serve as a juror on that particular trial. But you could be called to serve on the jury in another case.

Being a 'stand-by' juror

Sometimes when your number is called, the prosecution may want you to 'stand-by'. This means that you won't need to sit on the jury unless the jury list becomes exhausted and stand-bys will be recalled. Then you might be sworn as a juror.

If you recognise the defendant or anyone else involved in the trial, tell a court official at once by passing them a note.

People in the courtroom

There are different people involved in a court trial. 

The judge

The judge sits at the front of the court and controls proceedings. They control the trial and decides questions of law. A High Court Judge is called 'my lord'. A county court judge, sitting in the Crown Court, is called 'your honour'.

Foreperson of the jury

The first person selected as a juror acts as the foreperson of the jury. Their role is to write the jury’s decision (guilty or not guilty) against the charges on the Issue Paper (a form that the charges against the defendants are listed on) and announce the verdict in open court.

The defendant

The defendant sits in the dock accompanied by a prison officer. Youths appearing in court sit next to the dock.

The court clerk/ registrar

The court clerk/ registrar sits at the front of the court, directly below the judge. They swear the jury and co-ordinate the court proceedings.

Jury keeper

Once a jury has been chosen, two jury keepers (usually members of court security staff) are also sworn. Their job is to make sure that no one contacts jurors during the trial and to provide a way for jurors to communicate with the court.


Also known as counsel, barristers wear black robes and wigs. Prosecution counsel presents the evidence against the defendant to the court. Defence counsel presents the case for the defendant and challenges the prosecution’s evidence.

Solicitor advocates

Sometimes solicitor advocates will present evidence in the Crown Court in place of a barrister. The solicitor advocates will carry out the same role as a barrister but don't wear a wig or gown.


Solicitors sit either behind or in front of counsel. They will have previously instructed counsel (given them the details of the case) before the case has come to court. They don't speak in court except when the jury is being selected.


There are many types of witnesses that can be called during a case. Witnesses may include forensic scientists, police officers, medical experts, eyewitnesses and others. Some evidence is very detailed and specialised. Listen carefully to all the evidence and pay attention to any exhibits, as this will be the basis on which you must decide your verdict.

Court reporters/stenographers/shorthand writers

The Crown Court is a court of record. All proceedings are accurately recorded by a digital recording system operated by the court clerk, or by a shorthand writer or stenographer.

If there is a stenographer or shorthand writer, they usually sit beside the court clerk and records everything that is said in court. This record may be used if the case goes to appeal.

Court crier/tip staff

The court crier/tip staff wears a gown and swears in the witnesses and announces that the jury is sworn.


If the defendant is unable to understand English, the court will arrange an interpreter.

The case

The case follows a set pattern. The court clerk reads out the charges against the accused person.

A case before the Crown Court could involve:

  • burglary
  • fraud
  • rape
  • murder
  • several different crimes

A case before the High Court could involve an allegation of libel or slander.

The prosecution begins by outlining details of the case, calling and questioning witnesses. When the prosecution has finished questioning each witness, it is the defence counsel's turn to question the same witnesses. This is cross-examination.

When the prosecution case is complete, the defence follows a similar procedure by calling the witnesses who can be cross-examined by the prosecution.

In a few cases, such as cases involving vulnerable adult or child witnesses, the witness may sit in a separate room in the courthouse and give evidence to the court using video-link equipment.  A vulnerable adult or child may have an intermediary present to help them in giving their evidence to the court. 

There may be times when the legal professionals and the judge need time to discuss a point of law. The judge will ask the jury to leave the court for a short time. Once the matter has been resolved, the jury will be asked back to the courtroom.

When all the evidence has been given, the prosecution and then the defence will make their closing speeches when they will try to convince the jury of their respective cases.

Finally, the judge sums up. This means they will go over the facts of the case and tell you, the jury, about the relevant law. The judge will also give you advice before you retire to the jury room to discuss the case. Think about their comments carefully as judges are lawyers with years of experience.

Inside the jury room

Inside the jury room jurors discuss the case by carefully considering the evidence presented in court by:

  • all the witnesses
  • the arguments of the defence and prosecution
  • the summing up by the judge

No outside communication is allowed, except through the jury keepers.

Contempt of court

It is an offence, punishable with a fine or imprisonment, for a juror to tell anyone about any statements, opinions, arguments or votes made by jury members while they are considering the case.

Problems during deliberation

If a jury encounters any problems while they are discussing the case amongst themselves, they can contact the judge through the jury keepers for guidance.

If no jury decision by the end of the day

The jury will be brought back into the courtroom and the judge will remind them that they should not talk to anyone about the case. They will then be formally released until the following morning.

The next morning the jury will be called into the courtroom and asked to go to the jury room.

Reaching a verdict

When you have reached a verdict, tell the jury keeper and you will be taken back into the courtroom. The court clerk will ask the foreperson to deliver the verdict on each charge.

The foreperson must take care to only answer the questions that the court clerk asks them. When this has been done, your task is over, but stay in the jury box until the judge tells you to leave. 

If the defendant has been found guilty, the judge may pass sentence immediately. The judge might adjourn the case until reports are made available to the court. They will pass sentence on a different day. The judge will direct the jury about any further attendance or if they are no longer needed.

More useful links

Share this page

What do you want to do?
What is your question about?
Do you want a reply?
Your email address
To reply to you, we need your email address
Your feedback

We will not reply to your feedback.  Don't include any personal or financial information, for example National Insurance, credit card numbers, or phone numbers.

This feedback form is for issues with the nidirect website only.

You can use it to report a problem or suggest an improvement to a webpage.

If you have a question about a government service or policy, you should contact the relevant government organisation directly as we don’t have access to information about you held by government departments.

You must be aged 13 years or older - if you’re younger, ask someone with parental responsibility to send the feedback for you.

The nidirect privacy notice applies to any information you send on this feedback form.

Don't include any personal or financial information, for example National Insurance, credit card numbers, or phone numbers.

Plain text only, 750 characters maximum.
Plain text only, 750 characters maximum.

What to do next

Comments or queries about angling can be emailed to anglingcorrespondence@daera-ni.gov.uk 

What to do next

If you have a comment or query about benefits, you will need to contact the government department or agency which handles that benefit.  Contacts for common benefits are listed below.

Carer's Allowance

Call 0800 587 0912

Discretionary support / Short-term benefit advance

Call 0800 587 2750 

Disability Living Allowance

Call 0800 587 0912 
Email dcs.incomingpostteamdhc2@nissa.gsi.gov.uk

Employment and Support Allowance

Call 0800 587 1377

Jobseeker’s Allowance

Contact your local Jobs & Benefits office

Personal Independence Payment

Call 0800 587 0932

If your query is about another benefit, select ‘Other’ from the drop-down menu above.

What to do next

Comments or queries about the Blue Badge scheme can be emailed to bluebadges@infrastructure-ni.gov.uk or you can also call 0300 200 7818.

What to do next

For queries or advice about careers, contact the Careers Service.

What to do next

For queries or advice about Child Maintenance, contact the Child Maintenance Service.

What to do next

For queries or advice about claiming compensation due to a road problem, contact DFI Roads claim unit.

What to do next

For queries or advice about criminal record checks, email ani@accessni.gov.uk

What to do next

Application and payment queries can be emailed to ema_ni@slc.co.uk

What to do next

For queries or advice about employment rights, contact the Labour Relations Agency.

What to do next

For queries or advice about birth, death, marriage and civil partnership certificates and research, contact the General Register Office Northern Ireland (GRONI) by email gro_nisra@finance-ni.gov.uk

What to do next

For queries about:

If your query is about another topic, select ‘Other’ from the drop-down menu above.

What to do next

For queries or advice about passports, contact HM Passport Office.

What to do next

For queries or advice about Penalty Charge Notices (PCNs), including parking tickets and bus lane PCNs, email dcu@infrastructure-ni.gov.uk

What to do next

For queries or advice about pensions, contact the Northern Ireland Pension Centre.

What to do next

If you wish to report a problem with a road or street you can do so online in this section.

If you wish to check on a problem or fault you have already reported, contact DfI Roads.

What to do next

For queries or advice about historical, social or cultural records relating to Northern Ireland, use the Public Record Office of Northern Ireland (PRONI) enquiry service.

What to do next

For queries or advice about rates, email:

For queries or advice about property valuation, email:

For queries or advice about land registry, email:

For mapping queries, email:

What to do next

If you can’t find the information you’re looking for in the Coronavirus (COVID-19) section, then for queries about:

If your query is about another topic, select ‘Other’ from the drop-down menu above.

What to do next

For queries or advice about  60+ and Senior Citizen SmartPasses (which can be used to get concessionary travel on public transport), contact Smartpass - Translink.