HPV vaccine for men who have sex with men

Men who have sex with men (MSM) can get the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in Northern Ireland. The vaccine is available to MSM up to 45 years old attending sexual health clinics. It can protect you against genital warts and HPV-associated cancers.

How HPV is spread

HPV is a sexually transmitted infection (STI). You can become infected if you're sexually active with another person who already has the virus. The virus spreads by skin to skin contact. The risk of infection increases with the number of sexual partners you or your partners have.

You can still become infected if you use condoms because the virus can spread in contact with skin not covered by a condom.

How HPV affects your health

The virus can cause:

  • genital warts
  • anal cancer
  • throat cancer
  • penile cancer

The risk of anal cancer in MSM is higher than in heterosexual men. The risk increases if you also have HIV. 

What the vaccine does

You can protect yourself against HPV infection by getting the HPV vaccine. This protects against:

  • HPV types 6 and 11 which cause genital warts
  • HPV types 16 and 18 which cause most HPV-related cancers

Getting the vaccine

The vaccine is available to MSM aged  up to 45 years old who attend a genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic or HIV clinic. You should get vaccinated before you become sexually active. But there is still good protection in getting vaccinated if you're already sexually active.

To get the vaccine, ask your nurse or doctor in the GUM or HIV clinic you attend.

When the vaccine is given

To have the most protection, it’s important to get the full course of vaccination. Most men who have sex with men receive three doses of the vaccine within twelve months.

If you’re under 15, you need two doses six months apart.  

Side effects of the HPV vaccine

The vaccine is given as an injection in the arm. The side effects are:

  • soreness
  • swelling
  • redness

Other people who might receive the HPV vaccine

A doctor or nurse in a sexual health clinic might also offer the vaccine to:

  • HIV-positive women
  • HIV-positive men who aren’t MSM
  • MSM over 45  years old
  • sex workers

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