About laryngeal cancer
The larynx is part of the throat found at the entrance of the windpipe (trachea). It plays an important role in helping you breathe and speak.
In Northern Ireland, laryngeal cancer is more common in people over the age of 60. Over 80 per cent of cases occur in this age group. It's about three and a half times more common in men than women. It rarely occurs in anyone under the age of 40.
Symptoms of laryngeal cancer
The main symptoms of laryngeal cancer include:
- a change in your voice, such as sounding hoarse
- pain when swallowing or difficulty swallowing
- a lump or swelling in your neck
- a long-lasting cough
- a persistent sore throat or earache
- in severe cases, difficulty breathing
When to see your GP
You should see your GP if you have had any of the main symptoms listed above for more than three weeks.
These symptoms are often caused by other conditions, such as laryngitis, and it's a good idea to get them checked out.
If necessary, your GP can refer you to a hospital specialist for further tests to confirm or rule out cancer.
Causes of laryngeal cancer
It's not clear exactly what causes laryngeal cancer, but your risk of getting the condition is increased by:
- smoking tobacco
- regularly drinking large amounts of alcohol
- having a family history of head and neck cancer
- having an unhealthy diet
- exposure to certain chemicals and substances, such as asbestos and coal dust
Treatment for laryngeal cancer
If you are diagnosed with laryngeal cancer, the health professional looking after your care will discuss treatment options with you.
Radiotherapy or surgery to remove the cancerous cells from the larynx can often cure laryngeal cancer if it's diagnosed early.
If the cancer is advanced, a combination of surgery to remove part or all of the larynx, radiotherapy and chemotherapy can be used.
If you have surgery to remove your larynx, you'll no longer be able to speak or breathe in the usual way. Instead, you will breathe through a permanent hole in your neck (stoma) and you will need additional treatment to help restore your voice.
This may include an implant in your throat, or an electrical device you hold against your throat to produce sound.
Outlook for laryngeal cancer
The outlook for laryngeal cancer depends on the extent of the cancer when it's diagnosed and treated.
Fortunately, most laryngeal cancers are diagnosed at an early stage. This means the outlook is generally better than some other types of cancer.
In Northern Ireland, overall, about 90 out of every 100 people will be alive one year after diagnosis and treatment. About 60 out of every 100 people will be alive at five years.
If you smoke, stopping smoking after being diagnosed with laryngeal cancer may improve your outlook.