Pain during periods is common. It's usually caused by the womb contracting to push out the blood.
See your GP if the pain is so severe that it affects your daily life.
- Read more about painful periods
Some women naturally have heavier periods than others. But if your periods are so heavy that they impact your life, there is help available.
Talk to your GP about your bleeding, including how often you have to change your sanitary protection (towels, tampons or menstrual cup).
Your GP can investigate why you're experiencing heavy bleeding. These investigations may include a physical examination, blood tests or scans.
Treatments for heavy periods can include:
- some types of hormonal contraception, such as the intrauterine system (IUS) or the combined pill
- tranexamic acid tablets
- anti-inflammatory painkillers, such as ibuprofen or mefenamic acid
- progestogen tablets
- surgery (depending on the cause)
Read more about heavy periods, including treatment.
Bleeding between periods
There are many different causes of bleeding between periods. Some may not be anything to worry about. If you're concerned about bleeding or it lasts longer than three months, you should seek medical advice.
A period normally lasts 2 to 7 days, with the average period being 5 days long.
The length of the menstrual cycle varies from woman to woman. But the average is to have periods every 28 days. Regular cycles that are longer or shorter than this, from 21 to 40 days, are normal.
But some women have an irregular menstrual cycle.
This is where there is a difference in:
- the time between your periods (they may arrive early or late)
- the amount of blood you lose (periods may be heavy or light)
- the number of days the period lasts
Read more about irregular periods, including what causes them and when treatment may be necessary.
Stopped or missed periods
There are many reasons why a woman may miss her usual monthly period, or why periods may stop altogether.
Some common reasons are:
- sudden weight loss
- being overweight or obese
- extreme over-exercising
- reaching the menopause
If your periods stop and you're concerned, see your GP.
Read more about stopped or missed periods.
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
PMS is thought to be linked to changing levels of hormones throughout the menstrual cycle.
Not all women experience PMS. Among those who do, the range and severity of symptoms can vary.
Symptoms may include:
- mood swings
- feeling depressed or irritable
- breast tenderness
Symptoms usually start and can intensify in the 2 weeks before your period, and then ease and disappear after your period starts.
Read more about PMS, including symptoms and treatment.
Endometriosis is a condition where the tissue that lines the womb (endometrium) is found outside the womb, such as in the ovaries and fallopian tubes.
Not all women have symptoms, but endometriosis can cause:
- painful, heavy or irregular periods
- pelvic pain
- pain during or after sex
- pain or discomfort when going to the toilet
- bleeding from your bottom
- feeling tired all the time
See your GP if you have symptoms of endometriosis, especially if they're having a big impact on your life.
Read more about endometriosis, including how it's diagnosed and treated.
Some women get a one-sided pain in their lower abdomen when they ovulate.
The pain can be a dull cramp or a sharp and sudden twinge. It can last just a few minutes or continue for a day or two. Some women notice a little vaginal bleeding when it happens.
Painful ovulation can usually be eased by simple remedies like soaking in a hot bath or taking an over-the-counter painkiller, such as paracetamol.
If you're in a lot of discomfort, see your GP about other treatment options.
Read more about ovulation pain.
Read more about periods.
Menopause happens when a woman’s periods stop. Women usually experience it between 45 and 55 years of age.
After periods have stopped for more than a year, any bleeding from the vagina after this needs to be checked by a GP. The condition is called postmenopausal bleeding.