Lymphoedema develops when the lymphatic system doesn't work properly. The lymphatic system is a network of channels and glands throughout the body. The lymphatic system helps fight infection and remove excess fluid.
It's important that lymphoedema is identified and treated as soon as possible. If it isn't treated, it can get worse.
Symptoms of lymphoedema
The main symptom of lymphoedema is swelling in all or part of a limb or another part of the body. It can be difficult to fit into clothes, and jewellery and watches can feel tight.
At first, the swelling may come and go. It may get worse during the day and go down overnight. Without treatment, it will usually become more severe and persistent.
Other symptoms in an affected body part can include:
- an aching, heavy feeling
- difficulty with movement
- repeated skin infections
- hard, tight skin
- folds developing in the skin
- wart-like growths developing on the skin
- fluid leaking through the skin
When to see your GP
You should see your GP if you experience the typical symptoms of lymphoedema, such as swelling in your arms and legs. They may refer you to a specialist lymphoedema treatment centre for further assessment.
Lymphoedema can be diagnosed from your symptoms, medical history and by examining the affected body part.
If lymphoedema it is suspected in one limb, your GP may measure the circumference and compare it with the other one. This will help decide if it's enlarged (swollen).
Occasionally, further tests may be necessary to assess and monitor your condition.
Causes of lymphoedema
Lymphoedema is caused by a problem with the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is a network of vessels and glands spread throughout the body.
The main functions of the lymphatic system are helping fight infection and draining excess fluid from tissues.
There are two main types of lymphoedema:
- primary lymphoedema – caused by faulty genes that affect the development of the lymphatic system; it can develop at any age, but usually starts during infancy, adolescence, or early adulthood
- secondary lymphoedema – caused by damage to the lymphatic system or problems with the movement and drainage of fluid in the lymphatic system; it can be the result of an infection, injury, cancer treatment, inflammation of the limb, or a lack of limb movement
Primary lymphoedema is rare and is thought to affect around 1 in every 6,000 people. Secondary lymphoedema is much more common.
People who have treatment for melanoma in the lymph nodes in the groin can also get lymphoedema. Research has shown around 20-50 per cent of people are affected.
Your treatment team will let you know if you're at risk of getting lymphoedema from your cancer or cancer treatment.
Any planned treatment you have will try to avoid causing damage to your lymph nodes.
The Cancer Research UK website has more information about lymphoedema and cancer.
There's no cure for lymphoedema. But it's usually possible to control the main symptoms. This is done using techniques to minimise fluid build-up and stimulate the flow of fluid through the lymphatic system.
- wearing compression garments
- taking good care of your skin
- moving and exercising regularly
- having a healthy diet and lifestyle
Cellulitis is the most common complication of lymphoedema. It can also have a significant psychological impact.
If you have lymphoedema, the build-up of fluid in your tissues makes you more vulnerable to infection.
Cellulitis is a bacterial infection of the deep layer of skin (dermis) that often affects people with lymphoedema. Cellulitis can also sometimes cause lymphoedema.
Symptoms of cellulitis can include:
- redness and a feeling of heat in the skin
- pain and increased swelling in the affected area
- a high temperature (fever)
Antibiotics taken by mouth (orally) can usually be used to treat cellulitis. Severe cases may need to be treated in hospital with antibiotics given directly into a vein (intravenously).
Living with a long-term condition that affects your appearance can cause a great deal of distress and lead to periods of depression.
You may be depressed if you've been feeling down for the past few months and no longer find pleasure in things you usually enjoy.
If this is the case, talk to your GP or any clinical staff treating you. Effective treatments are available for depression.
Talking to other people with lymphoedema can be reassuring and decrease feelings of isolation, stress and anxiety, (see more useful links below).