The prostate gland is part of the male reproductive system, sited near the bladder and penis and encircling the tube through which urine passes from the bladder.
Problems such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer are both rare in men under 50.
Prostatitis is most common under 50 and treatable with medication or surgery.
Symptoms and diagnosis
Pain and difficulty in urinating can be caused by:
- infection and inflammation
- the prostate growing slowly bigger (benign prostatic hyperplasia, BPH)
- prostate cancer – a slow-growing tumour, which also causes pain in the lower back, hips or pelvis as well as erectile problems
Awareness – what to do
The PSA test (Prostate Specific Antigen) is a test that measures the level of PSA in your blood. PSA is a substance made by the prostate gland, which naturally leaks out into the bloodstream.
A raised PSA can be an early indication of prostate cancer. However, other conditions that are not cancer (like enlargement of the prostate, prostatitis and urinary infection) can also cause a rise in PSA.
The higher the level of PSA the more likely the diagnosis is cancer. However, the PSA test can also miss prostate cancer. Diets high in dairy and animal fats may increase risk; those high in green vegetables may be protective.
Action Cancer offers clinics staffed by qualified medical personnel. This is a free and confidential service.
Prostate Cancer UK also offers help and advice - find out more from its website.
Health and Social Care Trusts
- Belfast Health and Social Care Trust
- Northern Health and Social Care Trust
- South Eastern Health and Social Care Trust
- Western Health and Social Care Trust
- Southern Health and Social Care Trust
Bladder cancer affects the inner lining of the bladder and is the fourth most common cancer in men, especially men over 50. Smokers are more at risk as are people who work with chemicals used in the dye, leather and rubber industries.
Symptoms include pain during urination, blood in the urine and a frequent need to urinate.
The loss of ability to control urination is a common problem that affects as many as one in three people. It can be easily cured or at least made manageable. As a man, you're more at risk of one of two types of incontinence as you get older:
- urge – an overpowering urge to urinate followed by heavy leakage
- overflow – small leaks from a full bladder
It's best to examine your testicles regularly for lumps, whatever your age. A common testicular problem for men of all ages is a swelling caused by a build-up of fluid around the testicle (hydrocele). You'll need to visit your doctor to get it checked.
Impotence or erectile dysfunction is the repeated inability to get or keep an erection firm enough for sexual intercourse.
Around five per cent of 40-year-old men may have the condition, which increases with age, possibly affecting up 25 per cent of 65 year olds. Anything that interferes with the blood flow to the penis may be a cause. Diabetes, kidney disease, chronic alcoholism, multiple sclerosis and cardiovascular disease account for many cases.
Heart disease and high blood pressure (hypertension)
One in five men dies from heart disease before the age of 75. It claims more men's lives than any other disease. Heart disease runs in families, so you have a greater chance of developing it if your family has a history of the disease. Other risk factors include:
- an unhealthy diet with too much fat, particularly saturated fat
- lack of exercise
- being overweight
- excess stress
High blood pressure is a major risk. If your blood pressure has been high for a long time, you are more at risk of a heart attack or stroke.
Physical and emotional health problems
Some men develop depression, loss of sex drive, impotence and other physical and emotional problems when they reach their late 40s or early 50s.
Other health problems which occur for men in this age group are:
- hot flushes
- mood swings
- loss of muscle mass and fat redistribution
- dry and thin skin
- increased sweating
- poor concentration and irritability
- loss of enthusiasm
These symptoms can interfere with everyday life and happiness, so it's important to work out the underlying cause, and what can be done to resolve these problems. If you are concerned, you should speak to your GP.
Male menopause, andropause and mid-life crisis are sometimes used to explain the symptoms listed above. Low levels of testosterone can sometimes be responsible for symptoms when the testes are not functioning properly.
In many cases, the symptoms are nothing to do with hormones. Other reasons for these symptoms can include:
- thyroid-gland dysfunction
- marital problems
- job dissatisfaction
- financial problems
- alcohol misuse