Symptoms of gastritis
Many people with gastritis caused by a bacterial infection don't have any symptoms. In other cases, gastritis can cause:
If the stomach lining has been worn away (erosive gastritis) and exposed to stomach acid, symptoms may include pain, bleeding or a stomach ulcer.
The symptoms of gastritis may come on suddenly and severely (acute gastritis) or last a long time (chronic gastritis).
When to see your GP
If you have indigestion and stomach pain, you can try treating this yourself with changes to your diet and lifestyle, or with a number of different over-the-counter medications, such as antacids.
See your GP if:
- you have indigestion symptoms lasting a week or longer, or it's causing you severe pain or discomfort
- you think it's brought on by medication you've been prescribed
- you're vomiting blood or have blood in your stools (poo) (the blood in your stools may appear black and sticky, like tar - after being digested in your gut)
- you’re 55 years of age or older and have weight loss
Your GP will assess you and decided whether investigation or treatment is necessary. They may recommend one or more of the following tests:
- a stool test – to check for infection or bleeding from the stomach
- a breath test for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection – this involves drinking a glass of clear, tasteless liquid that contains radioactive carbon and blowing into a bag
- an endoscopy – a flexible tube (endoscope) is passed down your throat and into your oesophagus and stomach to look for signs of inflammation
- a barium swallow – you're given some barium solution, which shows up clearly on X-rays as it passes through your digestive system
Possible causes of gastritis
Gastritis is usually caused by one of the following:
- a H. pylori bacterial infection – see below
- excessive use of cocaine or alcohol
- regularly taking aspirin, ibuprofen or other painkillers classed as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
- a stressful event – such as a bad injury or critical illness, or major surgery
- less commonly, an autoimmune reaction – when the immune system mistakenly attacks the body's own cells and tissues (in this case, the stomach lining)
H. pylori gastritis
Many people become infected with H. pylori bacteria and don't realise it. These stomach infections are common and don't usually cause symptoms.
A H. pylori infection can sometimes cause recurring bouts of indigestion. This is because the bacteria can cause inflammation of the stomach lining.
This sort of gastritis is more common in older age groups. It is usually the cause of chronic (persistent) non-erosive cases.
An H. pylori stomach infection is usually lifelong, unless it's treated. Read more about treating an H. pylori infection.
Treatment aims to reduce the amount of acid in the stomach to relieve symptoms, allowing the stomach lining to heal and to tackle any underlying cause.
You may be able to treat gastritis yourself, depending on the cause.
There are a number of over-the-counter medicines that can help neutralise the acid in your stomach. This can provide rapid pain relief. Ask your pharmacist for information about treatments. If these do not help, see your GP.
Things you can do to help yourself
If you think the cause of your gastritis is repeated use of NSAID painkillers (see above), try switching to a different painkiller that isn't in the NSAID class, such as paracetamol. You may want to talk to your GP about this.
- eating smaller, more frequent meals
- avoiding irritating (spicy, acidic or fried) foods
- avoiding or cutting down on alcohol
- managing stress (read relaxation tips)
Possible complications of gastritis
Chronic gastritis increases your risk of developing:
- a stomach ulcer
- polyps (small growths) in your stomach
- tumours in your stomach, which may or may not be cancerous